In a Senate resolution unanimously adopted State Sen. LeAnna Washington (D-Northwest) celebrated the 100thÂ birthday of Rosa Parks.
Washington delivered the following remarks on the Senate floor to mark the occasion:
â€œI am humbled and honored to rise today to mark the 100th birthday of Rosa Parks, the first lady of civil rights.
â€œIn one simple gesture â€“ refusing to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery bus â€“ Rosa Parks changed the course of the civil rights in the United States.
â€œParksâ€™ bravery and civil disobedience sparked a massive bus boycott until Alabamaâ€™s segregation law was changed in December of 1956.
â€œThroughout the years, Rosa Parks has received so many honors, including the Congressional Gold Medal; the Presidential Medal of Freedom; and the Spingarn Award, the NAACPâ€™s highest honor.
â€œSo much has been said about Rosa Parks over the years. I and countless others look up to her as a symbol of how far we have come, but also how much of a difference one person can make on the course of history.
â€œAs we celebrate her 100th birthday, I am confident Rosa Parksâ€™ legacy will live on for centuries.â€
Sen. Washington noted excerpts from The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks by Jeanne Theoharis.
Rosa Parks had been thrown off the bus a decade earlier by the same bus driver â€“ for refusing to pay in the front and go around to the back to board. She had avoided that driverâ€™s bus for 12 years because she knew well the risks of angering drivers, all of whom were white and carried guns. Her own mother had been threatened with physical violence by a bus driver, in front of Parks who was a child at the time. Parksâ€™ neighbor had been killed for his stand on busses, and teenage protester Claudette Colvin, among others, had recently been badly manhandled by the police.
Parks was a lifelong believer in self-defense.Â Malcolm X was her personal hero. Her family kept a gun in the house, including during the boycott, because of the daily terror of white violence. As a child, when pushed by a white boy, she pushed back. His mother threatened to kill her, but Parks stood her ground. Another time, she held a brick up to a white bully, daring him to follow through on his threat to hit her. He went away. When the Ku Klux Klan went on rampages through her childhood town, Pine Level, Ala., her grandfather would sit on the porch all night with his rifle. Rosa stayed awake some nights, keeping vigil with him.
Her husband was her political partner. Parks said Raymond was â€œthe first real activist I ever met.â€ Initially she wasnâ€™t romantically interested because Raymond was more light-skinned than she preferred, but she became impressed with his boldness and â€œthat he refused to be intimidated by white people.â€ When they met, he was working to free the nine Scottsboro boys and she joined these efforts after they were married. At Raymond’s urging, Parks, who had to drop out in the 11th grade to care for her sick grandmother, returned to high school and got her diploma. Raymond’s input was crucial to Parks’ political development and their partnership sustained her political work over many decades.
Many of Parksâ€™ ancestors were Indians. She noted this to a friend, who was surprised when, in private, Parks removed her hairpins and revealed thick braids of wavy hair that fell below her waist. Her husband, she said, liked her hair long and she kept it that way for many years after his death, although she never wore it down in public. Aware of the racial politics of hair and appearance, she tucked it away in a series of braids and buns â€“ maintaining a clear division between her public presentation and private person.
Parksâ€™ arrest had grave consequences for her family’s health and economic well-being.Â After her arrest, Parks was continually threatened, such that her mother talked for hours on the phone to keep the line busy from constant death threats. Parks and her husband lost their jobs after her stand and didnâ€™t find full employment for nearly 10 years. Even as she made fundraising appearances across the country, Parks and her family were at times nearly destitute. She developed painful stomach ulcers and a heart condition, and suffered from chronic insomnia. Raymond, unnerved by the relentless harassment and death threats, began drinking heavily and suffered two nervous breakdowns. The Black press, culminating inÂ JETÂ magazineâ€™s July 1960 story on â€œthe bus boycottâ€™s forgotten woman,â€ exposed the depth of Parksâ€™ financial need, leading civil rights groups to finally provide some assistance.
Parks spent more than half of her life in the North. The Parks family had to leave Montgomery eight months after the boycott ended.Â She lived for most of that time in Detroit in the heart of the ghetto, just a mile from the epicenter of the 1967 Detroit riot. There, she spent nearly five decades organizing and protesting racial inequality in â€œthe promised land that wasnâ€™t.â€
In 1965 Parks got her first paid political position, after over two decades of political work. After volunteering for Congressman John Conyersâ€™ long-shot political campaign,
Parks helped secure his primary victory by convincing Martin Luther King, Jr. to come to Detroit on Conyersâ€™ behalf. He later hired her to work with constituents as an administrative assistant in his Detroit office. For the first time since her bus stand, Parks finally had a salary, access to health insurance, and a pension â€“ and the restoration of dignity that a formal paid position allowed.
Parks was far more radical than has been understood.Â She worked alongside the Black Power movement, particularly around issues such as reparations, Black history, anti-police brutality, freedom for black political prisoners, independent black political power, and economic justice. She attended the Black Political Convention in Gary and the Black Power conference in Philadelphia. She journeyed to Lowndes Co., Ala. to support the movement there, spoke at the Poor Peopleâ€™s Campaign, helped organize support committees on behalf of Black political prisoners such as the Wilmington 10 and Imari Obadele of the Republic of New Africa, and paid a visit of support to the Black Panther school in Oakland, Cal.
Parks was an internationalist.Â She was an early opponent of the Vietnam War in the early 1960s, a member of The Womenâ€™s International League for Peace & Freedom, and a supporter of the Winter Soldier hearings in Detroit and the Jeannette Rankin Brigade protest in D.C. In the 1980s, she protested apartheid and US complicity, joining a picket outside the South African embassy and opposed US policy in Central America. Eight days after 9/11, she joined other activists in a letter calling on the United States to work with the international community and no retaliation or war.
Parks was a lifelong activist and a hero to many, including Nelson Mandela. After his release from prison, he told her, â€œYou sustained me while I was in prison all those years.â€